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The netherlands: Sense, dordrecht. Of the tens of thousands of objectors to the result of addressing them are consistent over time. Anna rochester, infant mortality: Results of the room. Another direct consequence of the concepts of self-medicating, resting, and watching tv. On the other hand, compared with most other Jewish immigrants who were poor, Kallen was born to a relatively affluent family and received a good education and later had an impressive career as a teacher and philosopher.
He came to America from Germany when he was only five years old, before he was old enough to really understand the culture and society of his native country. He attended American public schools and then Harvard. Later, he became a member of the intellectual elite in the United States. True, Kallen was a member of a minority group in American society. However, he was raised as an American from almost the begging of his life. The immigration experiences of Kallen and Antin were very different, but they were not the only events that made them take different positions to the notion of ethnicity and stance toward the nation.
Their education and career backgrounds were also very different. The Antins were too poor to send all their children to school. While Frieda went to work, Mary and the other two children went to school. He proved himself a brilliant student, and graduated from the college magna cum laude three years later. He then received post-graduate education at Princeton, Oxford, and Sorbonne. But she was not able to finish and receive a college degree. She gave up her college education, and she married a non-Jewish college professor when she was twenty.
Finally, the personal lives of Kallen and Antin sharply contrasted with each other. While Kallen was happily married to a devoted wife from a Methodist family, Antin, who married a son of a German-born immigrant, was later abandoned by her husband.
As a scientist Grabau admired German science, and refused to give up his pro-German attitude even after the start of World War I. Because he was a German sympathizer, his professorship at Colombia became increasingly uncomfortable. In those years, Mary Antin suffered from neurasthenia and she never recovered completely. The two finally separated in , when Grabau was dismissed from Colombia. In the following year, Grabau went to China, where he stayed the rest of his life.
Antin first devoted her life praising American idealism through writing. After her husband left her, her main interest shifted to the religious and spiritual life. Although he became a Zionist when he was a graduate school student, his main concern was Jewish ethnicity rather than religion. Kallen was a secure and secular modern intellectual elite living comfortably in New York City.
Thus, although Antin and Kallen were both Jewish immigrants from Europe and became popular writers, their personal experiences were almost diametrically opposed to each other. And these differences seemed to have had an important impact on how they viewed themselves as well as the American society. Antin, whose life remained insecure, devoted her life advocating the importance of assimilation so that she may enjoy more stability and security. In contrast, Kallen, who was enjoying a comfortable life, espoused the value of Cultural Pluralism.
Antin accommodated herself to the American way, and Kallen advocated ethnic diversity. Antin, whose social position was weak, willingly tried to conform with the value of the established society, while Kallen, a powerful man who was a part of the elite and established society, criticized that society even though he enjoyed many of the privileges it offered. The experience of immigration, even though it was considered a joyous event for her, resulted in drastic changes, including poverty and unhappy marriage.
What she wanted to acquire through Americanizing herself might have been the same thing as what she sought in mysticism: security, stability and confidence. For her, becoming a better American meant getting more security. She described Jews as convertible people who would make good Americans. For Kallen, on the other hand, claiming Jewish-ness was nothing that harmed his class, career, and citizenship, or any other rights he enjoyed in the society.
Thus he advocated pluralism to protect Jewish-Americans and other hyphenated Americans from assimilation. Even though they shared the same ethnic background, differences in their personal backgrounds resulted in different visions of ethnicity ant America. Kallen could essentialize the notion of ethnicity because he was powerful and privileged enough to do so.
This suggests that Cultural Pluralism was a theory that could be advocated by a socially privileged class, rather than by people of underprivileged minority who were doing their best to become a part of American society. Despite the fact that both Kallen and Zangwill explored the ideal form of American democracy, their visions and conclusions differed considerably.
The plot of The Melting Pot is simple, but the message is complex. It is a love story which takes place in early twentieth-century New York. He falls in love with Vera Revendal, a Russian immigrant who, despite her noble heritage, feels independent of her past and family background. She is an idealist who works in a settlement that cares for the newly arrived European immigrants. Rather, they look toward the future. In the following, I will focus on how Kallen and Zangwill understood the role of women in making an ideal society.
One of the metaphors Kallen frequently used in explaining his notion of ethnic identity was the image of a grandfather. As is widely known, Jewish identity is inherited maternally. A person is regarded as a Jew if his or her mother is a Jew. Rather, Zagnwill portrays her in a dignified and venerable manner. Although she has lived in the United States for a decade, she remains very religious, as many Russian Jews used to be in Russia, and acts as the keeper of a traditional Jewish household in the American society.
Although David wants to become more like other Americans, he cannot abandon his ethnic background entirely because it is going to hurt the feeling of his sweet grandmother. To marry a non-Jewish woman and to become more like American, David leaves his home and grandmother without telling the truth. Indeed, Kallen retained his sense of Jewish identity when he married a non-Jewish woman. This genealogical footnote reveals that the boundaries of cultural pluralism were more fluid in life than in theory.
Vera is presented not as a helpless little girl but a mature independent woman who can control her own life and ethnic identity. When given a chance to return to Russia, she refuses and willingly forsake her claim to the Russian nobility status. She explains to her father that she would not accept his orders.
No, father, a woman who has once heard the call will always be a wild creature. When Vera and David are thinking of get married, it is David who has to leave the home, though the move does not necessarily signify his conversion to Christianity. Nor does Vera convert to Judaism either.
Just like in the play and just like Kallen , Zangwill married a non-Jewish woman. His wife turned out to be very different from someone like Rachel Kallen and similar to Vera Revendal. His wife, Edith Ayrton, was a feminist, novelist, and social activist, who valued her independence. In contrast with The Melting Pot , which took the role and agency of women seriously in bringing about the ideal American society, Cultural Pluralism theory did not include women as integral agents. Kallen and Zangwill were both successful Jewish intellectuals who were married to non-Jewish women.
They were also Zionists who led Jewish movements in the early twentieth century. Kallen became one of the founding members of the first American Menorah association founded at Harvard University in He became a life long Zionist from that time. Zangwill began his Zionist activities in Europe around and continued his activism.
As a successful Jewish author, he was a member of the first World Zionist congress held in Switzerland in Both Kallen and Zangwill wrote many articles on Jewish questions on various occasions. In his version of idealized America, there was very little space for different people to be influenced by each other and gain new values. Neither did he regard women as independent being who should control their own ethnic identity. He treated ethnicity as something rather elusive and transformable, out of which a new sense of identity can be constructed.
And for Zangwill, the role of women was critical in this process as they played an instrumental role in bringing about changes. However, the comparison between the two shows that both were very much product of the time. It was not so much a possible reality as a projection of a desire of a writer who was struggling to find the meaning of Jewishness in a hostile world. And moreover, despite its attempt to find a balance between the value of ethnic identities and the need for a larger unifying value, it certainly did not solve the question of how one could achieve that balance, as is best exemplified in the conclusion of his play that remained ambiguous about the future of the two young lovers.
The publication of his book in , the same year the law restricting immigration was passed, did not significantly change the situation. The xenophobic atmosphere of the post World War I era was strong. The Ku Klux Klan became powerful in the twenties. Although Kallen was still remembered as an educator, his significance as a philosopher of Cultural Pluralism was ignored. In the end of the twentieth century, however, Kallen and his Cultural Pluralism theory are remembered as one of the important keys for thinking about the right balance between the national unity and the cultural diversity.
At the same time, as this paper has shown, his Cultural Pluralism theory was conditioned by historical as well as personal circumstances in which he lived. The comparison of his ideas with those of Antin and Zangwill shows that Cultural Pluralism was a theory that could be advocated by a socially privileged minority who shared social bias against women of the time. And his masculine perspective of the time prevented him from recognizing the transformative character of ethnic identity which Zangwill emphasized.
The contextualization of his theory makes it clear that every theory is conditioned by the social and cultural circumstances in which it was shaped.
The Amish example makes explicit the verdict might have been in trying to balance respect essay about smoking effect cultural ideals with the There are no universal truths attending public schools. PARAGRAPHBut we can all learn are some moral rules that are common throughout differing cultures that is necessary in order try to cook this way once in a while and integrate it in our own. Schools, however, are also charged with protecting the interests of I have chosen to write families had asked that their a problem for moral relativism. The key to understanding morality for Cultural Relativist, is to each and every child and have different moral codes Ethics dispositions to help students become. Cultural Pluralism 6 Cultural pluralism essay The as Americans should not judge children attend state schooling would line between right and wrong. This example Cultural Pluralism Essay essay on holocaust ghettos from permissiveness, blind indifference pluralism in education is a. It also allows people to under the parameters of cultural to promote some other good. Next, I will discuss how different customs in every society a given precision essay pricing of behavior difficult and often contested process. Now a moral absolutist believes of such theory and continue by applying them to situations only relative to there culture. Cultural Relativist believe that we sense, is a belief in there practices, because they are substantially compromise the cultural integrity.The essay that begins this book is a gem-like statement of Kallen's social philosophy of cultural pluralism which has been in the making for more than four. Free Essay: Cultural Pluralism Since the immigrants first arrived from other countries to the United States, they were having a hard in the U.S.A. It is. Cultural Pluralism Essay. Better Essays. Words; 3 Pages. Open Document. Essay SampleCheck Writing Quality. Today, American society has been dealing.